Using shapes to make modal sounds is completely flawed unless you know what you are doing. In most cases what you believe to be the modes are nothing but major scales being played.
To answer your question you first need to understand diatonic harmony really well, and then start learning how to incorporate other methods such as modulation, secondary dominants, borrowed chords, altered chords and diminished chords.
To begin with you need to know how a basic key is made
You have the intervals tone, tone, semitone,tone, tone, tone, semitone. With these you can create a key from scratch as long as you understand how the notes in music work.
in the key of A you would get this:
A (T) B (T) C# (S) D (T) E (T) F# (T) G# (S) A
You should know or learn how to do this in all keys. Next you must know how the chords are ordered. In a major key they look like this:
Maj, Min, Min, Maj, Maj(Dom), Min, Dim(m7b5)
so you would end up with:
A, Bm, C#m, D, E, F#m, G#dim, A
You should learn how to do this in all 12 keys. You need to understand that harmony is based on what everything resolves or gravitates to, so by starting on the A in the progression above and then using the I IV and V chords, we would have a strong major sound so we would use the A major scale. This is because the entire key is based off the series of notes I first wrote. That includes every single chord of that key.
Hundreds of years ago the standard major scale used to be what we now call the lydian mode. This just shows how times and tastes change so it's not definite how long the current major scale will last in its current form. Many things could change again in the next few hundred years.
If you take my example key in A but start on a different chord but still using the same system of chords - just reshuffle them - you will start to get into modal territory.
Bm, C#m, D, E, F#m, G#m7b5, A, Bm
The tonality has know shifted into a modal structure, in this case dorian. Absolutely nothing has changed except the resolution point/harmonic centre.
To make it clearly dorian you have to highlight the major sixth interval so as to distinguish it from other minor sounds such as aeolian. Some chord progressions can be ambiguous.
Here's an example of a progression that would work for dorian:
Bm7, C#m7, E7, Bm
Bm7, G#m7b5, F#m7, E, Bm7
If you now take the major scale from earlier:
A, B, C#, D, E, F#, G#, A and reshuffled it to: B, C#, D, E, F#, G#, A, B
Now play that over the chord progression I just wrote.
It's exactly the same as A major except everything now evolves around the second note of B, instead of A. This would give you a dorian tonality which is a happyish minor sound, like Santana.
You can use the same trick to make the rest of the modes, just resolve around a given note of any major key to make the flavour change. This is what the modes essentially are, flavours.
C#m, D, E, F#m, G#m7b5, A, Bm, C#m
Again the notes above are derived from A major, but with C#m as the focal point. If you then utilise the chords that use the Phrygian elements of the scale, you will be sounding all phrygian, which is a spanishy vibe.
Phrygian has a b2 b3 b6 and b7, so highlighting the chords that contain these notes strengthens the phrygian tonality
Chords that contain the essential ingredients in this situation are the Tonic(first chord) C#m, D and E
C#m contains the b3 (E)
The D major chord contains the b2 (D) and the b6 (A)
The E major chord contains the b3 (E) and the b7 (B)
To finish I'll give you the modes in order so you can apply what I have said above in all modes: